Entrepreneurship in Tourism and Sport, 2013, vol. 9, issue 1


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Teraz wyświetlane 1 - 9 z 9
  • Pozycja
    Ambush Marketing in Poland Before the 2012 European Football Championship
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Gębarowski, Marcin
    Activities belonging to ambush marketing (parasite marketing) are more and more widely undertaken with regard to subsequent, huge sports events. Therefore, this article analyzes the scope of using this form of promotion in the period that preceded the 2012 European Football Championship. A reference has been made to Poland – a country which was a co-host of the championship. On the Polish market, owners of many brands performed actions that aimed at “stealing” image effects which should be achieved only by official sponsors who support such huge tournament (which is considered to be one of the three greatest sports events all around the world – apart from the Summer Olympic Games and the Football World Cup). The article has two objectives. First, it describes a concept of promoting selected brands (based on relation to the EURO 2012), identifying the scope of using ambush marketing forms in relation to Polish consumers. Second, it presents results of research which illustrates differences in conceiving the brands of both official sponsors and those – to whom one can attribute a name of ambushers.
  • Pozycja
    KSP Polonia Warszawa’s Financial Problems – Analysis of Liquidity
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Marcinkowska, Elżbieta
    Financial liquidity is one of the most important areas of running business operations. Each entity must keep it at an adequate level. Lack of financial liquidity is the main factor leading to bankruptcy of companies. The analysis of liquidity and debt verifies the ability of an entity to pay current liabilities and also confirms the company’s ability to survive on the market. Based on the results of the analysis of liquidity and debt the management should therefore prepare liquidity management strategy. The article is based on the available financial statements of KSP Polonia Warszawa Sportowa Spółka Akcyjna and presents an analysis of its liquidity and debt. The results of this analysis for years 2008-2010were very alarming and indicative of the upcoming bankruptcy of the club. In July this year, an application was filed with the court confirming insolvency of the club and, by virtue of a decision issued by PZPN (Polish Football Association), Polonia Warszawa, so far playing in the Ekstraklasa (Polish top division), will start the next season in the 4th division. It will take the club many years to regain its position.
  • Pozycja
    Students’ Attitudes Towards Career in the Tourism Industry – Implications for Tacit Knowledge Management
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Bednarska, Marlena A.; Olszewski, Marcin
    The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit knowledge leakage outside the tourism industry. It was also found that students’ attitudes towards tourism careers are significantly influenced by previous work experience and satisfaction with the studies.
  • Pozycja
    The Main Burdens of Doing Business Perceived by Family-Owned Hospitality Enterprises in Slovakia
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Šmardová, Ľudmila; Elexa, Ľuboš
    The main aim of the article is to identify the main burdens of doing business perceived by Slovak family owned hospitality businesses as well as to assess their view on the prospects for family businesses in Slovakia. The article analyzes primary data gained from an opinion survey conducted by means of a questionnaire in 2013. The business environment perception is evaluated according to the perception of certain external business environment indicators (conditions of doing business) depicted on the basis of the results of the pilot survey conducted in 2009 and the research carried out in 2010/2011. The results allowed us to identify the most discussed topics and burdens of doing business in tourism and hospitality in Slovakia.
  • Pozycja
    A Born Global Gradually Advancing Its Internationalization – a Case Study of Internationalization Process of a Small Tour Operator in a Niche Market
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Nessel, Karolina
    Today much is already known about the internationalization patterns of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). However, the research has mainly focused on outward internationalization and more in manufacturing industry than in services (and hardly in the tourism industry). Thus, the paper undertakes an exploratory research in order to verify to what extent the common framework of analysis may explain an internationalization path of SMEs in the tourism sector. To this goal, a case study of a small tour operator in a niche market of weddings abroad in Poland is undertaken. The research seeks to match the firm’s internationalization characteristics with considerations of two dominant theories of SME internationalization: stage models of gradual internationalization (so called behavioral models) and models of early and rapid internationalization (businesses called ‘born globals’ or ‘international new ventures’). The main findings of the study are twofold. Firstly, even if the general framework of the analysis suits a case of a small tour operator well, still there is a need to adapt the general framework to industry features (in particular, in terms of organization capabilities). Secondly, a further research should also take into account heterogeneity of international activities (in terms of their antecedents and process). Even if a firm is born global, its further internationalization may well be incremental in nature. In particular, an early and rapid internationalization through imports may lead to a gradual internationalization through exports. The former may result from a proactive attitude, be strategy driven, and implied by characteristics of the market and product (well in lines with models of an early and rapid internationalization). The latter, however, may stem from a rather passive attitude with almost no resource commitment (more in lines with models of a gradual and slow internationalization).
  • Pozycja
    Personnel as a Factor of Production in Development of Regional Tourism Economy – a Conceptual Paper
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Panasiuk, Aleksander
    Tourism economy appears in every sphere of economy: production of goods and services, their division, exchange and consumption; it also occurs in the majority of the national economy branches that directly or indirectly deal with meeting tourist demand. The majority of economic processes in tourism sector are realized by direct tourism economy and its representatives, tourist entrepreneurs. Territorial self-government units and tourist organizations play a significant role in formation of economic processes in tourism sector on the regional and local levels. The classic economy distinguishes three basic production factors: labor, land and capital. In the modern approaches they are completed with the fourth that has different names. Beginning with technical and organizational progress which is a logic extension of coexistence and cooperation of three basic factors, ending with information and knowledge – treated as the most modern factors of production in the so-called new economy. In the totality of activities of tourism economy entities, a special role should be ascribed to the personnel, namely human potential of tourism economy entities.
  • Pozycja
    Towards the Definition of a Tourism Cluster
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Kachniewska, Magdalena
    The concept of tourism clusters is becoming central within the tourism development planning process and the EU perceives cluster arrangements as the preferred form of introducing innovations in different economic fields, including tourism. The Polish Tourism Organization (POT) is to launch the subprogram aimed at the commercialization of the tourism product and intensification of SMEs’ integration processes (vertical and horizontal ones), which shall boost the innovativeness of Polish tourism regions and enterprises. The main purpose of this article is to find rationale for tourism cluster formation in Polish TDAs and to formulate the definition and main attributes of the tourism cluster. The problem of clusters’ impact on SMEs’ productivity and the destinations competitiveness will be discussed on the basis of economic theory using the case study and the field work method as well as the literature study.
  • Pozycja
    Innovative Activity of Small Tourist Enterprises – Cooperation with Local Institutional Partners
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Najda-Janoszka, Marta
    According to the open innovation model an effective strategy for increasing innovation and competitiveness of the region should be based on active and multilevel cooperation among operators of the local tourism business environment. It is commonly assumed that an exceptionally important role in creating a favorable environment for the cooperative practices in the region is performed by local authorities. Yet, a modest number of research findings presented in the literature indicate a rather high level of inertia of local authorities in creating appropriate conditions for tourism business development, thus putting in question the effectiveness of performed intermediary function in the process of knowledge transfer among tourist enterprises. Given the paucity of empirical evidence on effectiveness of innovation policy interventions at the regional level, this article presents the empirical findings regarding cooperation in innovation between tourist enterprises and local institutional agents.
  • Pozycja
    The Role of Creativity in Development of Innovation in Tourism
    (Nowy Sacz School of Business – National-Louis University, 2013) Bascavusoglu-Moreau, Elif; Kopera, Sebastian; Wszendybył-Skulska, Ewa
    Creatvity, innovaton and entrepreneurship are slogans that have become an integral part of modern tourism economy. Creatvity and innovaton of tourism economy as well as the meaning of creatvity in tourism business are intensely discussed. Today, creatvity is being frequently analyzed as a basic feature of actons performed on a daily basis in terms of both personal and professional life, a feature that every employee is required to possess. It means that employers and, above all, the educaton system must feel it necessary to develop certain conditons in which human creatvity can be shaped, which is understood as a system that enables us to adjust to constantly changing environment and take a risk to apply new solutons to partcular problems. The artcle aims to present the role of creatvity in development of innovaton in tourism as well as factors that improve it. The analytcal part of the artcle will concentrate on the analysis of, inter alia, two signifcant groups of creatvity determinants: factors related to availability of qualifed staf on the local labor market as well as info-structure of tourism businesses.